Thursday, August 23, 2007

Milestones on Education

Milestones on Education

The Razak Report, the basis of the Education Ordinance 1956, recommends four types of schools at the primary level and that nationalistic elements be included in the school curriculum.

The Rahman Talib Report (which also reviewed the Razak Report) which formed the basis of the Education Act 1961 recommends that Malay be the main medium of instruction, and that there should be a common curriculum and a common examination.

All government primary schools are converted to either national primary schools or national-type primary schools.

All Standard One pupils in National-Type (English) Primary School are taught in Malay.

Most teachers in Catholic mission schools (e.g. convents and La Salle schools) become government servants, spelling the end of an era where Christian Missions were free to employ teachers. Thus began the erosion of the special character of mission schools. By being designated as "controlled schools", these schools also lost control of student admissions and the appointment of principals.

By 1988, the special agreement between the government and the Catholic Missions to allow the Religious to work up to 65 (the normal retirement age was 55) was unilaterally withdrawn, resulting in those who were older than 55 and still serving being forced to leave their positions.

The National Education Policy is reviewed culminating in the Mahathir Cabinet Report in 1979. The objectives were to achieve national unity in a multi-ethnic society, to increase patriotism, to produce skilled human resources for national development, and to democratise education.

Malay is affirmed as the main language in all schools. The report became the basis for the Education Act 1995 and 1996.

The 1996 Act retained the status of Malay as the main medium of instruction in all educational institutions, except in national-type schools where Malay is a compulsory subject. Private Secondary Chinese Schools are allowed to take the United Examinations Certificate (UEC).

Total phasing out of English as the medium of instruction in all public universities.

First credit transfer programme at the newly set-up Kolej Damansara Utama. By 1984, 150 students had been sent to Broward College in the US.

First twinning programme with Australia.

National Education Philosophy developed.

The 7th Malaysia Plan proposes Vision Schools - primary schools with the concept of children learning together, without regard for race or religion. Two or three primary schools of different streams are placed in the same area. There are currently five Vision School Complexes.

Five pieces of higher education legislation are tabled in Parliament paving the way for the higher education landscape today. The most important was the Private Higher Education Act.

The first Malaysian private university, Multimedia University, is set up.

The first foreign university campus, Monash University, is set up.

1999 Smart Schools are launched as a pilot (1999-2002) at a cost of RM300 million involving 87 schools.

2000The Penilaian Tahap Satu (PTS) which was introduced to Standard Three pupils in 1996, to allow top scorers to jump to Standard Five is scrapped after complaints of too much pressure on children.

Malaysia is declared an Islamic country by Prime Minister Datuk Seri (now Tun) Dr Mahathir Mohamad.

The Independent Committee to Investigate the Issue of Segregation of Students According to Race in Schools reports that some 93% of the pupils in primary schools were Malays, and only 2% were Chinese.

K-Economy Master Plan released.

Standard One students start Maths and Science in English.
Primary school education becomes compulsory.
Government implements National Service to promote racial integration.

The Higher Education Ministry is set up to develop and regulate higher education. Under its purview this year are 20 public universities and 532 private higher education institutions, 21 polytechnics and 34 community colleges.
The Education Ministry's portfolio covers pre-schools, schools, matriculation and teacher training.

All religious schools come under the ambit of the Education Ministry as government-assisted schools.

The National Education Master Plan is launched, proposing projects worth RM23.2 billion over five years, including cluster schools and teacher training.

Source:TheSun,Thursday, 2007
Related link: Plagiarism in Universiti Putra Malaysia

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